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Within a search engine, tokenization is the process of splitting text into “tokens”, both during querying and indexing. Tokens are the basic units for finding matches between queries and records.
Separators and non-separators
Our tokenizer divides characters into two classes: non-separators and separators. Non-separators are alphanumeric characters, and separators are non-alphanumeric characters like spaces and hyphens (
To form a token, we consider a string character-by-character. Our tokenizer identifies the longest groups of contiguous characters belonging to the same class (separator or non-separator), and creates a token for each group.
For example, the string
Hello, World! is tokenized as these four tokens:
,(with a trailing space) (separator)
World are comprised of non-separator characters, while
, (with a trailing space) and
! are comprised of separators.
Only non-separator characters are indexed, and thus searchable, by default. In the example above, only
World are indexed. Regardless if a user searches for
Hello, World! or
hello world, any record with these tokens will be a match.
Including separators to be indexed
You can customize what characters are indexed using
separatorsToIndex. When you include a character in this parameter, it has three consequences:
- We tokenize it as a non-separator.
- We do not combine it with adjacent characters: the tokenizer always puts the character alone in its own token, even if it appears next to other non-separators, or even next to itself.
- We index it.
For example, if
separatorsToIndex is set to
#@ (hash and at sign), then the string
#@lgolia!! is tokenized as:
@ are included in
separatorsToIndex, we index the tokens
lgolia. Note that even though they appear next to each other,
@ are separate tokens.
Now, when a user searches for
LGOLIA!! this record will be a match.
Although we tokenize a character in
separatorsToIndex on its own, when it’s directly adjacent to a non-separator token, we want to keep the order as a requirement for the search query.
For example, assuming that
@ is included in
separatorsToIndex, then the string
alice@wonderland is interpreted as
alice @ wonderland (all tokens must be adjacent, in this order). The phrase
alice @ wonderland (with spaces in between) has the same tokens, but with no restrictions on order. A search for
alice@wonderland, returns records with
alice @ wonderland (with spaces), but not records with
wonderland @ alice or
alice was @ wonderland.
When tokens must be found in a particular order, it is known as a sequence expression.
We also always create sequence expressions when alphanumeric characters surround a hyphen (
-), whether the hyphen is in
separatorsToIndex or not. For example, the term
real-time creates a sequence expression, meaning that the query
real-time matches records with
real time and
real-time, but not
real [...] time,
time real, or
time [...] real (
[...] indicates other words in the string). The query
real time, without a hyphen, matches any records with those two words, no matter the order or proximity.